Surnames (or family names) are hereditary and are often common to all members of a family.
Occupational surnames are derived from an occupation. Examples include Taylor, Smith, and Baker.
Toponymic surnames are derived from a place. Examples include Ayers (a person from Ayers, Scotland) and Bach (German for a person who lives near a stream).
Religious surnames are derived directly or indirectly from religious texts or traditions. Examples include Christian biblical names, Hebrew names from the Torah, and Muslim names from the Quran.
Nickname derived surnames are those based upon appearance, temperament, or personality. An example is the German surname Schwarzkopf (in German, schwarz=black, Kopf= head) meaning a person with dark hair.
Ornamental surnames are those that were adopted or forced upon individuals (and families) under political pressure.
Patronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a male ancestor. An example is the English patronymic surname Peterson, meaning son of Peter.
Female patronymic surnames (also known as female possessive suffix surnames) are a female form of a patronymic surname, most typically a patronymic surname with a feminine suffix added. For example, in Russian, the wife of Mikhail Gorbachev is Raisa Gorbachova, -ev is replaced with ova.
Matronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a female ancestor. An example is the English matronymic surname Tiffany.
Popular Surnames (Family) in Estonia
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